The ESR will acquire knowledge on extracellular vesicles biogenesis, isolation and functional characterization. The training experience will provide skills in a wide range of research methods including purification and culture of stem cells of different origin, transfection, quantitative PCR, Western Blotting, fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry analysis, ELISA etc. Special emphasizes will be put on the characterization of EV cargo (protein, lipids and microRNA analysis), and functions (immunomodulation, tubular cell repair) in comparison with that of apoptotic bodies. Validation will be performed in collaboration with project Partner (secondments) studying EVs in animal models of ischemia reperfusion injury. The project will contribute to characterize the mechanisms involved in the effect of a number of different sources of stem cell, with promising applications for regenerative medicine therapy in kidney disease.